Non exhaustive list of international scientific publications and articles on The Great Hammerhead Shark, Sphyrna Mokarran

Published by University of The West Indies
The online Guide Trinidad Tobago_Sphyrna mokarran
Laser Photogrammetry
Published by O'Connell and Leurs
A minimally invasive technique to assess several life-history characteristics of the endangered great hammerhead shark Sphyrna mokarran_Journal of Fish Biology 88(3) · February 2016
ABSTRACT A dorsal-fin photo-identification technique paired with a non-invasive parallel laser photogrammetry technique was used to non-invasively identify individual Sphyrna mokarran over time. Based on the data collected over a duration of 59 days, 16 different S. mokarran (mean±s.d. pre-caudal length: 220⋅82±13⋅66 cm; mean±s.d. cephalofoil width: 71⋅38±7⋅94 cm) were identified using dorsal-fin photo-identification, with a mean±s.d. shark re-sighting frequency of 4⋅05±3⋅06 at-sea days. The results illustrate a high S. mokarran sighting rate and therefore, the utilization of parallel laser photogrammetry and dorsal-fin photo-identification may be a plausible multi-year approach to aid in non-invasively determining the growth rate and inter-annual site fidelity of these animals.
Fishery and Mortality
Published by A. J. Gallagher, J. E. Serafy, S. J. Cooke, N. Hammerschlag
Physiological stress response, reflex impairment, and survival of five sympatric shark species following experimental capture and release_Marine Ecology Progress Series 496:207-214
ABSTRACT In many fisheries, some component of the catch is usually released. Quantifying the effects of capture and release on fish survival is critical for determining which practices are sustainable, particularly for threatened species. Using a standardized fishing technique, we studied sublethal (blood physiology and reflex impairment assessment) and lethal (post-release mortality with satellite tags) outcomes of fishing stress on 5 species of coastal sharks (great hammerhead, bull, blacktip, lemon, and tiger). Species-specific differences were detected in whole blood lactate, partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and pH values, with lactate emerging as the sole parameter to be significantly affected by increasing hooking duration and shark size. Species-specific differences in reflex impairment were also found; however, we did not detect any significant relationships between reflex impairment and hooking duration. Taken together, we ranked each species according to degree of stress response, from most to least disturbed, as follows: hammerhead shark > blacktip shark > bull shark > lemon shark > tiger shark. Satellite tagging data revealed that nearly 100% of all tracked tiger sharks reported for at least 4 wk after release, which was significantly higher than bull (74.1%) and great hammerhead (53.6%) sharks. We discuss which mechanisms may lead to species-specific differences in sensitivity to fishing and suggest that observed variation in responses may be influenced by ecological and evolutionary phenomena. Moreover, our results show that certain species (i.e. hammerhead sharks in this study) are inherently vulnerable to capture stress and mortality resulting from fisheries interactions and should receive additional attention in future conservation strategies.
Published by Christine B. Testerman
Global patterns of population genetic structure and population dynamics of the endangered great hammerhead shark_Nova Southeastern University. Retrieved from NSUWorks, Oceanographic Center.
ABSTRACT Many sharks have life history characteristics (e.g., slow growth, late age at maturity, low fecundity, and long gestation periods) that make their populations vulnerable to collapse due to overfishing. The porbeagle (Lamna nasus), bull shark (Carcharhinus leucas), great hammerhead (Sphyrna mokarran), and smooth hammerhead (S. zygaena), are all commercially exploited. The population genetic structure of these species was assessed based on globally distributed sample sets using mitochondrial control region (mtCR) sequences and/or nuclear markers. Complex patterns of evolutionary and demographic history were inferred using coalescent and statistical moment-based methods. All four species showed statistically significant genetic partitioning on large scales, i.e., between hemispheres (L. nasus mtCR φST = 0.8273) or oceanic basins (C. leucas nuclear FST = 0.1564; S. mokarran mtCR φST = 0.8745, nuclear FST = 0.1113; S. zygaena mtCR φST = 0.8159, nuclear FST = 0.0495). Furthermore, S. zygaena mtCR sequences indicated statistically significant matrilineal genetic structuring within oceanic basins, but no intrabasin structure was detected with nuclear microsatellites. S. mokarran showed statistically significant genetic structure between oceanic basins with both nuclear and mitochondrial data, albeit with some differences between the two marker types in fine scale patterns involving northern Indian Ocean samples. A microsatellite assessment of C. leucas demonstrated no population structuring within the Atlantic or Indo-Pacific, with the exception that samples from Fiji were differentiated from the remaining Indo- Pacific Ocean locations. In contrast, the L. nasus mitochondrial and nuclear ITS2 sequences revealed strong northern vs. southern hemispheric population differentiation, but no differentiation within these hemispheres. These geographic patterns of genetic structure were used to determine the source of fins obtained from the international fin trade and to develop forensic tools for conservation.
Published by CMS
Poposal for the inclusion of Sphyrna mokarran on CMS Appendix II_Convention on Migratory Species
ABSTRACT The Government of Costa Rica and the Government of Ecuador have submitted a proposal for the inclusion of the Great Hammerhead Shark (Sphyrna mokarran) on CMS Appendix II for the consideration of the 11th Meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP11), 4-9 November 2014, Quito, Ecuador. The proposal is reproduced under this cover for a decision on its approval or rejection by the Conference of the Parties.
Published by NSW Government, department of primary fisheries
Great Hammerhead Shark Sphyrna mokarran
Migration and connectivity
Published by Neil Hammerschlag, Austin J. Gallagher, Dominique M. Lazarre, Curt Slonim
Range extension of the endangered great hammerhead shark Sphyrna mokarran in the Northwest Atlantic: Preliminary data and significance for conservation_Endangered Species Research 13(2):111-116
ABSTRACT We provide pilot data from a satellite-tracked great hammerhead shark Sphyrna mokarran in the Atlantic, representing the first such data on this species in the literature. The 250 cm shark was tagged off the coast of the middle-Florida Keys (USA) and transmitted for 62 d. During this time it migrated a minimum distance of ~1200 km northeast from the coast of Florida, into pelagic international waters of the Northwest Atlantic. When compared to the primary literature, this migration represented a northeasterly range extension for this species off the continental slope in the Atlantic. The significance of this range extension is discussed in terms of the vulnerability of S. mokarran to target and non-target fisheries.
Published by Harry AV, Macbeth WG, Gutteridge AN, Simpfendorfer CA.
Life histories of endangered hammerhead (Carcharhiniformes, Sphyrnidae) from the east coast_J Fish Biol. 2011 Jun;78(7)
ABSTRACT The life histories of two globally endangered hammerhead sharks, Sphyrna lewini and Sphyrna mokarran, were examined using samples collected from a range of commercial fisheries operating along the east coast of Australia. The catch of S. lewini was heavily biased towards males, and there were significant differences in von Bertalanffy growth parameters (L(∞) and k) and maturity [stretched total length (L(ST)) and age (A) at which 50% are mature, L(ST50) and A(50)] between those caught in the tropics (L(∞) = 2119 mm, k = 0·163, L(ST50) = 1471 mm, A(50) = 5·7 years) and those caught in temperate waters (L(∞) = 3199 mm, k = 0·093, L(ST50) = 2043 mm, A(50) = 8·9 years). The best-fit estimates for a three-parameter von Bertalanffy growth curve fit to both sexes were L(∞) = 3312 mm, L(0) = 584 mm and k = 0·076. Males attained a maximum age of 21 years and grew to at least 2898 mm L(ST). The longevity, maximum length and maturity of females could not be estimated as mature animals could not be sourced from any fishery. Length at birth inferred from neonates with open umbilical scars was 465-563 mm L(ST). There was no significant difference in length and age at maturity of male and female S. mokarran, which reached 50% maturity at 2279 mm L(ST) and 8·3 years. Sphyrna mokarran grew at a similar rate to S. lewini and the best-fit estimates for a two-parameter von Bertalanffy equation fit to length-at-age data for sexes combined with an assumed mean length-at-birth of 700 mm were L(∞) = 4027 mm and k = 0·079. Females attained a maximum age of 39·1 years and grew to at least 4391 mm L(ST). The oldest male S. mokarran was 31·7 years old and 3691 mm L(ST). Validation of annual growth-band deposition in S. mokarran was achieved through a mark, tag and recapture study.
Sensory Organs
Published by Kyle Reid Mara
Evolution of the Hammerhead Cephalofoil: Shape Change, Space Utilization, and Feeding Biomechanics in Hammerhead Sharks (Sphyrnidae)_University of South Florida
The relationship between form and function is often used to elucidate the biological role of a structure. Hammerhead sharks offer a unique opportunity to study form and function through phylogeny. Because sphyrnid sharks display a range of cranial morphologies this group can be used to address questions about the evolution of cranial design and investigate the effects of changes in head morphology on feeding structures and bite force. Geometric morphometrics, volumetric analyses, morphological dissections, and phylogenetic analyses of the cephalofoil were used to gain insight into changes in cranial design through evolutionary history. External morphometrics and internal volumetric analyses indicated that while the external shape of the cephalofoil and placement of the sensory structures is variable through evolutionary history, the volumes of the internal cranial elements do not change. Constructional constraints within the cephalofoil were confined to sensory structures while feeding morphology remained relatively unchanged. Analysis of the morphology and biomechanics of the feeding apparatus revealed that through phylogeny the feeding system does not change among sphyrnid species. However, size-removed bite force was lower than predicted for all sphyrnid species except Sphyrna mokarran. Despite differences in head morphology between sphyrnid and carcharhinid sharks, the feeding bauplan is conserved in sphyrnid sharks with few changes to the feeding structures. Instead the chondrocranial and sensory structures are modified around the relatively static feeding core. Finally, the durophagous S. tiburo was found to consume hard prey in a manner that is biomechanically and morphologically different from other durophagous fishes. Furthermore, the diet of S. tiburo is constrained by the properties of its preferred prey.
Published by University of Colorado at Boulder
Hammerhead shark study shows cascade of evolution affected size, head shape_Science Daily
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